Table of Contents

Effects of Divorce on Family Relationships

1. Parent-Child Relationships

When parents divorce each other, another sort of divorce occurs between the parents and their children. The primary effect of divorce (and of the parental conflict that precedes the divorce) is a decline in the relationship between parent and child.1) Immediately after a divorce, most parents have two sets of problems: their adjustment to their own intrapsychic conflicts and to their role as a divorced parent. The stress of divorce tends to weaken and even damage the parent-child relationship for divorced mothers.2)

1.1 Support

Children of divorced parents rated the support they received from home much lower than children of intact homes, 3) and these negative ratings become more pronounced by the time children are in high school4) and college.5)

Children in divorced families receive less emotional support, financial assistance, and practical help from their parents.6) Divorced homes show a decrease in language stimulation, pride, affection, stimulation of academic behavior, encouragement of social maturity, and warmth directed towards the children. The presence of fewer toys and games is common, as is an increase in physical punishment.7) Though some studies show that parental divorce itself may not affect parenting,8) it often leads to worry, exhaustion, and stress for parents. These factors affect both parenting and parental control.9) Thus, divorce and separation result in less caring and more overprotective parenting during the adolescent years.10)

1.2 Trust

Though the child’s ability to trust their parents, close friends, and others “is strongly linked to positive parent-teen relationships regardless of parental divorce,”11) parental divorce makes it more difficult for children to trust their parents,12) while a “decline in the closeness of the parent-child relationship mediates much of the association between parental divorce, marital discord, and offspring’s psychological wellbeing in adulthood.”13)

1.3 Child's Early Departure from Home

Children of separated parents move away from their families of origin in greater proportions14) and earlier15) than children of intact marriages due to low levels of family cohesion and harmony.16) The greater the unhappiness in their parents’ marriage, the earlier children leave home to get married, cohabit, or live on their own.17) Some children who experience marital disruption in adolescence may leave home “at such young ages that it resembles running away from home.”18)

Compared with children living in intact, two-parent families, runaway children with stepparents are only 70 percent as likely to return home.19) Stepchildren are over 20 percent more likely to leave home earlier.20) According to Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider, “children whose families gained a stepparent while they were adolescents…increase their odds of leaving home to marry by about 100 percent.”21)

According to the National Survey of Children’s Health, children who live with both biological parents or two adoptive parents score higher on the positive parental relationship scale (50.7) than children who live with a biological parent and a stepparent (48.0), single mothers (49.7), or another family configurations (47.9), such as with their father only or foster parents.22) (See Chart Below)

Quality of Parent-Child Relationship by Family Structure

The Adolescent Health Survey shows that 6.3 percent of students in grades 7-12 who live with their married, biological parents have run away from home. In contrast, 11.9 percent of adolescents who live with stepparents, 8.6 percent of youth who live with their biological cohabiting parents, 10.9 percent of children living with one biological cohabiting parents, 10.5 percent of youth from divorced homes, and 11.1 percent of adolescents from never married homes have run away.23) (See Chart Below)

Running Away by Family Structure

2. Mother-Child Relationships

Children of divorced mothers have poorer and less stimulating home environments. Furthermore, divorced mothers, despite their best intentions, are less able than married mothers to give emotional support to their children.24) Divorce also causes a slight decline in children’s trust of their mothers when parental divorce occurs between birth and age four; however, after controlling for the quality of the parent-child relationship, this effect all but disappears.25) Compared with continuously-married mothers, divorced mothers tend to be less affectionate and communicative with their children, and to discipline them more harshly and more inconsistently, especially during the first year following the divorce.26)

Divorced mothers have particular problems with their sons, though their relationship will likely improve within two years,27) even if, as often occurs, discipline problems persist for up to six years after the divorce.28)

3. Father-Child Relationships

Divorced fathers, especially non-custodial fathers, do not fare well with their children. Children from divorced families receive less emotional support from their fathers than children from intact families.29) Divorced fathers are less nurturing,30) and more likely to drift away from younger children if denied legal custody at the time of the divorce.31)

3.1 Contact

Divorce leads to a decline in the frequency and quality of parent-child contact and relationships,32) and it becomes difficult for nonresidential parents, 90 percent of whom are fathers, to maintain close ties with their children.33) For example, children spend significantly more nights with their mother than their father.34) Nearly 50 percent of the children in one study reported not seeing their nonresident father in the past year, and the small number that had recently stayed overnight at the father’s residence did so for a special visit, not as part of a regular routine.35) An analysis of the National Survey of Families and Households36) found that about one in five divorced fathers had not seen his children in the past year, and fewer than half the fathers saw their children more than a few times a year.37) By adolescence (between the ages of 12 and 16), fewer than half of children living with separated, divorced, or remarried mothers had seen their fathers at all in more than a year, and only one in six saw their fathers once a week.38) Fathers who have found new partners also have less contact with the adult children from their original marriage.39)

Contact with the father declines over time after a divorce, though this pattern is less pronounced the older the child is at the time of the divorce.40) Daughters of divorced parents were 38 percent less likely than their peers in intact families to have frequent contact with their fathers, and sons of divorced parents were 20 percent less likely.41) Fathers who repartner have further reduced contact with their adult children.42) A close father-child bond is important for adolescent outcomes.43)

3.2 Emotional Closeness and Well-Being

Children’s relationships with their parents worsen after a divorce.44) Marital disruption creates distance between parents and children,45) even compared to children living in married but unhappy families.46) Divorced parents also report significantly diminished satisfaction with their former spouse’s relationships with their children,47) though parental divorce tends to affect the relationship of the child and the opposite-sex parent more than the child and their parent of the same sex.48)

Divorced fathers, especially non-custodial fathers, do not fare well with their children. Children report more distant relationships with their fathers,49) and fathers report “a more negative change in their relationships with their children than [do] custodial mothers.”50) The pattern of worsening relationships after the breakup holds for both sons51) and daughters,52) and more conflict during the divorce process increases the likelihood of distance between the father and his children.53) However, as time passes after the breakup, conflict between father and child decreases. Additionally, older children typically experience less conflict with their nonresident fathers than do younger children.54)

Divorce leads to a decline in children’s ability to trust their fathers.55) Young adults who feel emotionally close to their fathers tend to be happier and more satisfied in life, regardless of their feelings towards their mothers.56) However, boys and girls from single father families have significantly lower life satisfaction than those from two parent families.57) Still, children and adolescents who do feel close to the father following a divorce experience better outcomes.58)

Children from divorced families receive less emotional support from their fathers than children from intact families.59) Divorced fathers are less nurturing,60) and more likely to drift away from younger children if denied legal custody at the time of the divorce.61) Nonresident fathers also “have considerably less opportunity to influence their children's attitudes and behavior.”62) Fathers who repartner are less likely to remain in contact with their children than single fathers.63) Ultimately, the proportion of children who enjoy a consistently close relationship with their father is much higher among adolescents whose parents remain married (48 percent) than among those whose parents divorce (25 percent).64)

3.3 Persisting Effects

Boys, especially if they live with their mother, respond with more hostility to parental divorce than girls do, both immediately following the divorce and for a period of years thereafter.65) Girls often fare worse than boys when living with their father or stepfather after a parental divorce.66) By the time children, particularly daughters, attend college, their affection for their divorced father wanes significantly.67)

4. Sibling Relationships

Children of divorce are more likely to have hostile relationships with their siblings than children from married families.68) This can last even into adulthood.69)

5. Grandparent-Grandchild Relationships

Divorce negatively affects grandparent/grandchild relationships. Paternal grandparents frequently cease to see their grandchildren as their grandchildren’s contact with their own father, the grandparents’ son, diminishes.70) Furthermore, compared to never-divorced grandparents, grandparents who were themselves divorced had less contact with their adolescent grandchildren, engaged in fewer shared activities with them,71) and are less likely to believe that their grandchildren are a valuable part of their lives.72) Divorced paternal grandparents were less likely to play a mentoring role in the life of their grandchildren than divorced maternal grandparents.73)

1) Elizabeth Meneghan and Toby L. Parcel, “Social Sources of Change in Children’s Home Environments: The Effects of Parental Occupational Experiences and Family Conditions,” Journal of Marriage and Family 57, (1995): 69-84.
Paul R. Amato and Tamara D. Afifi, “Feeling Caught Between Parents: Adult Children’s Relations with Parents and Subjective Well-Being,” Journal of Marriage and Family 68, no. 1 (2006): 231.
2) Judith S. Wallerstein and Joan Berlin Kelly, Surviving the Breakup: How Children and Parents Cope With Divorce (1980; repr., New York, NY: Basic Books, 1996), 224-225. Citations are from the 1996 edition.
Kalmijn, Matthijs, “Adult Children's Relationships With Married Parents, Divorced Parents, and Stepparents: Biology, Marriage, or Residence?,” Journal Of Marriage & Family 75, no. 5 (2013): 1187.
3) Jane E. Miller and Diane Davis, “Poverty History, Marital History, and Quality of Children’s Home Environments,” Journal of Marriage and Family 59, (1997): 1002.
4) Thomas S. Parish, “Evaluations of Family by Youth: Do They Vary as a Function of Family Structure, Gender and Birth Order?” Adolescence 25, (1990): 354-356.
5) Thomas S. Parish, “Evaluations of Family as a Function of One’s Family Structure and Sex,” Perceptual and Motor Skills 66, (1988): 25-26.
6) Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, A Generation at Risk (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 69.
Teresa M. Cooney and Peter Uhlenberg, “Support from Parents Over the Life Course: The Adult Child’s Perspective,” Social Forces 71, (1991): 63-83.
7) Carol E. MacKinnon, Gene H. Brody, and Zolinda Stoneman, “The Effects of Divorce and Maternal Employment on the Home Environments of Preschool Children,” Child Development 53, (1982): 1392-1399.
8) Lisa Strohschein, “Challenging the Presumption of Diminished Capacity to Parent: Does Divorce Really Change Parenting Practices?” Family Relations 56, (2007): 358–368.
9) Thomas L. Hanson, Sara S. McLanahan, and Elizabeth Thomson, “Windows on Divorce: Before and After,” Social Science Research 27, (1998): 329-349.
Jeanne M. Hilton and Stephan Desrochers, “Children’s Behavior Problems in Single-Parent and Married-Parent Families: Development of Predictive Model,” Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 37, (2003): 13-34.
10) Lianne Woodward, David M. Fergusson, and Jay Belsky, “Timing of Parental Separation and Attachment to Parents in Adolescence: Results of a Prospective Study from Birth to Age 16,” Journal of Marriage and Family 62, (2000): 167.
11) Valarie King, “Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 64, no.3 (2002): 642.
12) Valarie King, “Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 64, no.3 (2002): 648.
13) Paul R. Amato and Juliana M. Sobolewski, “The Effects of Divorce and Marital Discord on Adult Children’s Psychological Well-Being,” American Sociological Review 66 (2001): 912.
14) Andrew J. Cherlin, Kathleen E. Kiernan, and P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale, “Parental Divorce in Childhood and Demographic Outcomes in Young Adulthood,” Demography 32, (1995): 299-316.
15) William S. Aquilino, “The Likelihood of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence: Effects of Family Structure and Parental Characteristics,” Journal of Marriage and Family 53, (1990): 13-27; William S. Aquilino, “Family Structure and Home-Leaving: A Further Specification of the Relationship,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 53, (1991): 999-1010; Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider, “Family Structure and Conflict: Nest-Leaving Expectations of Young Adults and Their Parents,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 51, (1989): 87-97; Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider, Leaving Home before Marriage (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993); Teresa M. Cooney, “Young Adults’ Relations With Parents: The Influence of Recent Parental Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 56, (1994): 45-56. As cited in Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, A Generation at Risk (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 69-70.
Mencarini, Letizia, Elena Meroni, and Chiara Pronzato, “Leaving Mum Alone? The Effect of Parental Separation on Children's Decisions to Leave Home,” European Journal of Population 28, no. 3 (2012): 337, 351.
16) William S. Aquilino, “The Likelihood of Parent-Adult Child Coresidence: Effects of Family Structure and Parental Characteristics,” Journal of Marriage and Family 53, (1990): 13-27; William S. Aquilino, “Family Structure and Home-Leaving: A Further Specification of the Relationship,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 53, (1991): 999-1010; Kathleen Kiernan, “The Impact of Family Disruption in Childhood on Transitions Made in Young Adulthood,” Population Studies 46, (1992): 218-234; Lynn K. White and Alan Booth, “The Quality and Stability of Marriage: The Role of Stepchildren,” American Sociological Review 50, (1985): 689-698. As cited in Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, A Generation at Risk (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 70.
17) Mary Ann Powell and Toby L. Parcel, “Effects of Family Structure on the Earnings Attainment Process: Differences by Gender,” Journal of Marriage and Family 59, (1997): 421. Kathleen E. Kiernan, “Teenage Marriage and Marital Breakdown: A Longitudinal Study,” Population Studies 40, (1986): 35.
18) Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider, “The Effects of Childhood Family Structure on Leaving and Returning Home,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 60, no. 3 (1998): 755.
19) Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider, “The Effects of Childhood Family Structure on Leaving and Returning Home,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 60, no. 3 (1998): 753.
20) Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider, “The Effects of Childhood Family Structure on Leaving and Returning Home,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 60, no. 3 (1998): 751.
21) Frances K. Goldscheider and Calvin Goldscheider, “The Effects of Childhood Family Structure on Leaving and Returning Home,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 60, no. 3 (1998): 754.
22) This chart draws on data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics in the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) in 2003. The data sample consisted of parents of 102,353 children and teens in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. 68,996 of these children and teens were between six and 17 years old, the age group that was the focus of the study. The survey sample in this age range represented a population of nearly 49 million young people nationwide.
Nicholas Zill, “Quality of Parent-Child Relationship and Family Structure,” Mapping America Project. Available at http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-46-48-164.pdf
23) This chart draws on a large national sample (16,000) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. This work was done by the author in cooperation with former colleagues at The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C.
Patrick F. Fagan, “Running Away and Family Structure,” Mapping America Project. Available at http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-25-27-157.pdf
24) Jane E. Miller and Diane Davis, “Poverty History, Marital History, and Quality of Children’s Home Environments,” Journal of Marriage and Family 59, (1997): 996-1007.
25) Valarie King, “Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 64, no. 3 (2002): 648.
26) E. Mavis Hetherington, Roger Cox, and Martha Cox, “Effects of Divorce on Parents and Children,” Nontraditional Families: Parenting and Child Development, ed. Michael E. Lamb (New York, NY: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1982), 223-288. There is increasing evidence that many divorced families already had these patterns long before the divorce.
Paul. R. Amato and Alan Booth, “A Prospective Study of Divorce and Parent-Child Relationships,” Journal of Marriage and Family 58, (1996): 357.
Jane E. Miller and Diane Davis, “Poverty History, Marital History, and Quality of Children’s Home Environments,” Journal of Marriage and Family 59, (1997): 1004.
27) E. Mavis Hetherington, Roger Cox, and Martha Cox, “Effects of Divorce on Parents and Children,” Nontraditional Families: Parenting and Child Development, ed. Michael E. Lamb (New York, NY: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1982), 223-288.
28) E. Mavis Hetherington, Roger Cox, and Martha Cox, “Long-term Effects of Divorce and Remarriage on the Adjustment of Children,” Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 24, (1985): 518-530.
29) , 59) Heidi R. Riggio, “Parental Marital Conflict and Divorce, Parent-Child Relationships, Social Support, and Relationship Anxiety in Young Adulthood,” Personal Relationships 11, (2004): 106.
30) , 60) Seth J. Schwartz and Gordon E. Finley, “Fathering in Intact and Divorced Families: Ethnic Differences in Retrospective Reports,” Journal of Marriage and Family 67, (2005): 207.
31) , 61) Yoram Weiss and Robert J. Willis, “Children as Collective Goods and Divorce Settlements,” Journal of Labor Economics 3, (1985): 268-292.
32) William S. Aquilino, “Later-Life Parental Divorce and Widowhood: Impact on Young Adults’ Assessment of Parent-Child Relations,” Journal of Marriage and Family 56, (1994): 908-922. Alan Booth and Paul R. Amato, “Parental Pre-Divorce Relations and Offspring Postdivorce Well-Being,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 63, (2001): 210.
33) Brad Peters and Marion F. Ehrenberg, “The Influence of Parental Separations and Divorce on Father-Child Relationships,” Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 49, (2008): 96-97.
Alan Booth and Paul R. Amato, “Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 56, no. 1 (1994): 27.
34) I-Fen Lin, Nora Cate Schaeffer, Judith A. Seltzer, and Kay L. Tuschen, “Divorced Parents’ Qualitative and Quantitative Reports of Children’s Living Arrangements,” Journal of Marriage and Family 66, (2004): 389-390.
35) Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr. and Christine W. Nord, “Parenting Apart: Patterns of Childrearing after Marital Disruption,” Journal of Marriage and Family 47, (1985): 893-904. Note: Eight percent of the children whose fathers were nonresident had never-married (as opposed to married and then divorced or separated) fathers.
36) This is a federally funded survey of 13,000 respondents conducted by the University of Wisconsin in 1987-1988, 1992-1994, and 2001-2003.
37) Judith A. Seltzer, “Relationships between Fathers and Children Who Live Apart: The Father’s Role After Separation,” Journal of Marriage and Family 53, (1991): 79-101.
38) David Popenoe, Life without Father (New York, NY: The Free Press, 1996), 31. Popenoe reports on the findings of The National Survey of Children.
39) Noël-Miller, M. laire, “Repartnering Following Divorce: Implications for Older Fathers' Relations With Their Adult Children,” Journal of Marriage & Family 75, no. 3 (2013): 705, 708.
40) Judith Seltzer, “Relationships between Fathers and Children Who Live Apart: The Father’s Role after Separation,” Journal of Marriage and Family 53, (1991): 79-101.
41) Teresa M. Cooney, “Young Adults’ Relations With Parents: The Influence of Recent Parental Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 56, (1994): 45-56.
42) M. Claire Noël-Miller, “Repartnering Following Divorce: Implications for Older Fathers' Relations With Their Adult Children,” Journal Of Marriage & Family 75, no. 3 (2013): 703, 705.
43) Mindy E. Scott, Alan Booth, Valarie King and David R. Johnson, “Postdivorce Father-Adolescent Closeness,” Journal of Marriage and Family 69, (December 2007): 1201, 1207.
44) Paul R. Amato, “Children of Divorce in the 1990s: An Update of the Amato and Keith (1991) Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Family Psychology 15, (2001): 355-375.
Yongmin Sun, “Family Environment and Adolescents’ Well-being Before and After Parents’ Marital Disruption: A Longitudinal Analysis,” Journal of Marriage and Family 63, (2001): 697-713.
Paul R. Amato and Bruce Keith “Parental Divorce and the Well-being of Children: A Meta-Analysis,” Psychological Bulletin 110, (1991): 26-46.
45) Alice Rossi and Peter Rossi, Of Human Bonding: Parent-Child Relations Across the Life Course (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1990). As cited in Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, A Generation at Risk, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 69.
Juliana M. Soboleswki, “Parents’ Discord and Divorce, Parent-Child Relationships and Subjective Well-being in Early Adulthood: Is Feeling Close to Two Parents Always Better than Feeling Close to One?” Social Forces 85, (2007): 1105-1124.
Alan Booth and Paul R. Amato, “Parental Predivorce Relations and Offspring Postdivorce Well-being,” Journal of Marriage and Family 63, (2001): 197-212.
46) Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, “Consequences of Parental Divorce and Marital Unhappiness for Adult Well-being,” Social Forces 69, (1991): 895-914.
Juliana M. Sobolewski, and Paul R. Amato, “Parents' Discord and Divorce, Parent-Child Relationships and Subjective Well-Being In Early Adulthood: Is Feeling Close to Two Parents Always Better Than Feeling Close to One?,” Social Forces 85, no. 3 (2007): 1113-1114.
47) Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, “A Prospective Study of Divorce and Parent-Child Relationships,” Journal of Marriage and Family 58, (1996): 361.
48) Alan Booth and Paul R. Amato, “Parental Marital Quality, Parental Divorce, and Relations with Parents,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 56, no. 1 (1994): 28.
49) Rosemary Dunlop, Ailsa Burns, and Suzanne Bermingham, “Parent-Child Relations and Adolescent Self-Image Following Divorce: A Ten Year Study,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 30, (2001): 117-134.
50) Marsha Kline Pruett, Tamra Y. Williams, Glendessa Insabella, and Todd D. Little, “Family and Legal Indicators of Child Adjustment to Divorce Among Families With Young Children,” Journal of Family Psychology 17, no. 2 (2003): 174.
51) Nicholas Zill, Donna Morrison, and Mary Jo Coiro, “Long Term Effects of Parental Divorce on Parent-child Relationships, Adjustment, and Achievement in Young Adulthood,” Journal of Family Psychology 7, (1993): 91-103.
Sobolewski, Juliana M., and Paul R. Amato, “Parents' Discord and Divorce, Parent-Child Relationships and Subjective Well-Being In Early Adulthood: Is Feeling Close to Two Parents Always Better than Feeling Close to One?,” Social Forces 85, no. 3 (2007): 1115.
52) Constance R. Ahrons and Jennifer L. Tanner, “Adult Children and Their Fathers: Relationship Changes Twenty Years after Parental Divorce,” Family Relations 52, (2003): 340-351.
53) Janet Johnston, “High Conflict Divorce,” The Future of Children (1994): 165-182.
54) Judy Dunn, Helen Cheng, Thomas G. O’Connor, and Laura Bridges, “Children’s Perspectives on Their Relationships with Their Nonresident Fathers: Influences, Outcomes and Implications,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45, no. 3 (2004): 559.
55) Valarie King, “Parental Divorce and Interpersonal Trust in Adult Offspring,” Journal of Marriage and Family 64, (2002): 642-656.
56) Paul Amato, “Father-Child Relations, Mother-Child Relations and Offspring Psychological Well-being in Early Adulthood,” Journal of Marriage and Family 56, (1994): 1031-1042.
57) Kate A. Levin, and Candace Currie, “Family Structure, Mother-child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis,” Health Education 110, no. 3 (2010): 158, 161.
58) Paul Amato and Joan G. Gilbreth, “Nonresident Fathers and Children’s Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 61, (1999): 557-574
Valarie King and Juliana M. Sobolewski, “Nonresident Fathers’ Contributions to Adolescent Well-Being,” Journal of Marriage and Family 68, (2006): 537-557. Both as cited in Mindy E. Scott, Alan Booth, Valarie King, and David R. Johnson, “Postdivorce Father-Adolescent Closeness,” Journal of Marriage and Family 69, (2007): 1194.
62) Judith A. Seltzer, “Legal Custody Arrangements and Children's Economic Welfare,” American Journal of Sociology 96, (1991): 898.
63) M. Claire Noël-Miller, “Repartnering Following Divorce: Implications for Older Fathers' Relations With Their Adult Children,” Journal of Marriage & Family 75, no. 3 (2013): 703.
64) Mindy E. Scott, Alan Booth, Valarie King, and David R. Johnson, “Postdivorce Father-Adolescent Closeness,” Journal of Marriage and Family 69, (2007): 1201.
65) , 66) Martha J. Zaslow, “Sex Differences in Children’s Response to Parental Divorce: Two Samples, Variables, Ages, and Sources,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 59, (1989): 118-141.
67) Teresa M. Cooney, Michael A. Smyer, Gunhild O. Hagstad, and Robin Klock, “Parental Divorce in Young Adulthood: Some Preliminary Findings,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 56, (1986): 470-477.
68) Sheehan, Grania, et al, “Children's Perceptions of Their Sibling Relationships During Parental Separation and Divorce,” Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 41, no. 1/2 (2004): 80.
69) Heidi R. Riggio, “Relations Between Parental Divorce and the Quality of Adult Sibling Relationships,” Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 36, no. 1/2 (November 2001): 67, 75.
70) Janet Finch and Jennifer Mason, “Divorce, Remarriage and Family Obligations,” Sociological Review 38, (1990): 231-234.
71) Valarie King, “The Legacy of a Grandparent’s Divorce: Consequences for Ties Between Grandparents and Grandchildren,” Journal of Marriage and Family 65, (2003): 170-183.
Paul R. Amato and Jacob Cheadle, “The Long Reach of Divorce: Divorce and Child Well-being Across Three Generations,” Journal of Marriage and Family 67, (2005): 191-206.
72) Valarie King, “The Legacy of a Grandparent’s Divorce: Consequences for Ties Between Grandparents and Grandchildren,” Journal of Marriage and Family 65, (2003): 179.
73) Valarie King, “The Legacy of a Grandparent’s Divorce: Consequences for Ties Between Grandparents and Grandchildren,” Journal of Marriage and Family 65, (2003): 179.


This entry draws heavily from The Effects of Divorce on Children.