Effects of Divorce on Children's Future Relationships

Persons raised in divorced families tend to have less positive attitudes towards marriage, and more positive attitudes towards divorce. This negative attitude about marriage leads to decreased commitment to romantic relationships, which in turn is related to lower relationship quality.1) Divorce can also affect children's sexual behavior, thereby compromising their emotional and relational stability.

1. Trust in Relationships

Parental divorce often leads to low trust among children,2) and those who casually date exhibit “the strongest effects of parental divorce, suggesting that the repercussions of parental divorce may be in place before the young adults form their own romantic relationships.”3) The divorce of their parents makes dating and romance more difficult for children as they reach adulthood. Parental divorce horrifies young adults’ heterosexual relationship experiences though the connection is more evident for women than for men, according to one study.4)

These effects carry into adulthood. When compared with women from intact families, women from divorced families also reported less trust and satisfaction in romantic relationships.5) Children of divorced parents fear being rejected, and a lack of trust frequently hinders a deepening of their relationship.6) One study showed that individuals whose parents divorced were more likely than individuals whose parents remained married to believe that relationships were beset by infidelity and the absence of trust, and they were also more likely to believe that relationships should be approached with caution.7)

2. Hesitancy Toward Marriage

Persons raised in divorced families tend to have less positive attitudes towards marriage, and more positive attitudes towards divorce. This negative attitude about marriage leads to decreased commitment to romantic relationships, which in turn is related to lower relationship quality. In Sweden, where parental rejection is very high, no significant differences were found between individuals from divorced and intact families in their attitudes towards marriage and divorce. Thus the more common divorce and rejection is among adults, the more the attitudes and expectations of rejection are mainstreamed among children, even those raised in intact married families.

Adult male children of divorced parents show more ambivalence than men from intact families about becoming involved in a relationship, though they invest more money and tangible goods in casual dating relationships. Women share this ambivalence and demonstrate even more conflict, doubt, and lack of faith in their partner’s benevolence and tend to place less value on consistent commitment. Unwed teen mothers, who have expectations of rejection and divorce in relationships, seem to retain negative attitudes towards men instilled by their parents’ divorce.

3. Acceptance of Divorce

Compared with children of always-married parents, children of divorced parents have more positive attitudes towards divorce8) and less favorable attitudes towards marriage.9) Specifically, “adolescents who have experienced their parents’ divorces and remarriages may feel that marriage is unpredictable and unstable.”10) People raised in divorced families are less likely than those from intact families to believe that marriage is enduring and permanent,11) are less likely to insist upon a lifelong marital commitment,12) and are less likely to think positively of themselves as parents.13) Parental breakup also increases children’s acceptance of cohabitation, at least until adulthood. However, religious participation can reduce this effect.14)

These attitudinal differences among children of divorced parents are noticeable even as early as kindergarten.15) Children from divorced families are more tolerant of divorce than are children from intact families, though this is only likely if their parents had remarried. Without remarriage, the effect on their views of divorce was not significant.16) The mothers’ accepting attitudes toward divorce cause more children to be accepting of divorce themselves.17) These positive attitudes towards divorce affect not only likelihood of divorce, but also overall relationship quality.

After controlling for age, high levels of post-divorce inter-parental conflict are associated with less positive views of marriage among adolescents.18) One study of adolescents after a parental divorce reported that many children fear that their future marriages will lack love, trust, or communication, and that they will be beset by infidelity, conflict, or abuse. They also worry that their marriages will fail or that their spouse will abandon them,19) a finding common to another study published that year (2008).20)

In her study of children of divorced parents from Marin County, California, Judith Wallerstein found that the children of divorced parents still had persistent anxiety about their chances of a happy marriage a decade after their parents’ divorce. This anxiety interfered with their ability to marry well: Some failed to form satisfying romantic ties, while others rushed impulsively into unhappy marriages. This may explain why children of divorced parents tend to have a lower relationship quality as adults.21) The evidence shows that “adult children of divorce who eventually wed are more likely to divorce than are adult children from intact families.”22)

3.1 Girls

Young women from divorced families will feel a need for love and attention and yet fear abandonment; they will also be prone to both desire and anxiety.23) Women whose parents divorce are likely to be hampered or even overwhelmed by anxiety when it comes time to make decisions about marriage,24) though some “women with no ill effects from paternal divorce, may develop [the] security of friendship-based love quite well.”25) One study linked parental divorce to lower relationship commitment and confidence in women but not in men.26)

3.2 Boys

While parental divorce affects the child’s view of marriage, girls may be less influenced in their attitudes towards divorce “because they have more role models of intimacy and marriage as the ideal in their environment than boys do, especially in the media.” By contrast, boys have fewer role models of intimacy outside of their families. Hence a father’s modeling of interpersonal skills is more important for boys.27) Men from father-absent homes also experience less masculine sexual identification and more feminine sexual identification.28)

Men whose parents divorced are inclined to be simultaneously hostile and a “rescuer” of the women to whom they are attracted, rather than the more open, affectionate, cooperative partner, more frequently found among men raised by parents of an intact marriage. They are also more likely to be more violent toward their partner.29) By contrast, the problem of being overly meek or overly dominant is much more prevalent in the romantic relationships and marriages of the daughters of divorced families than it is among daughters of intact marriages.30)

4. Expectations to Marry or Divorce

The children of divorced parents, stepfamilies, or single parents are less likely to expect to marry.31) Children who have experienced parental divorce are more likely to expect to divorce, compared with children of intact families.32) Children of divorce also have more negative attitudes towards marriage33) and a preference for smaller family sizes, although the negative attitudes are mitigated by their parents’ remarriage.34)

5. Likelihood to Marry or Divorce

One generation passes on its marital instability to the next.35) Sons of divorced parents with less educated mothers have an increased tendency to forgo marriage.36) Additionally, parental divorce raises children’s likelihood of divorce:37) Children who have experienced parental divorce are more than twice as likely to divorce, compared with children of intact families.38) One study found that adults who experience parental divorce have chances of divorce 38 percent higher than adults raised in intact families. Significantly, this increase is not seen in children whose parents’ marriage ended because of the death of one of the parents.39)

Children of divorce are 39 percent more likely to marry other children of divorce, after controlling for education. Couples with one spouse from a divorced home are nearly twice as likely to divorce as couples with both spouses from non-divorced families. Worse still, couples with both spouses from divorced families are over three times more likely to divorce than couples with both spouses from non-divorced families.40)

Children who experience three or more transitions in family structure are much more likely to divorce later in life, compared to children who did not experience such family transitions.41) That is, 59 percent of the individuals who have never experienced a transition are predicted to never end a marriage, compared to those who experienced three or more transitions, whose likelihood to never divorce is about 33 percent.42)

Daughters of divorced parents divorce more than sons of divorced parents do.43) The risk of divorce in the first five years is 7044) to 7645) percent higher for the daughters of divorced parents than for daughters of intact marriages.46)

6. Marital Behavior

Adult male children of divorced parents show more ambivalence than men from intact families about becoming involved in a relationship,47) though they invest more money and tangible goods in casual dating relationships. Women share this ambivalence and demonstrate even more conflict, doubt, and lack of faith in their partner’s benevolence and tend to place less value on consistent commitment.48) Unwed teen mothers, who have expectations of rejection and divorce in relationships, seem to retain negative attitudes towards men instilled by their parents’ divorce.49)

Parental divorce is also associated with lower marital quality for their children. This manifests itself in arguing more about the family,50) increased rates of jealousy, moodiness, infidelity, conflicts over money, excessive drinking, and drug use.51) Analysis of the 1987-1988 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households showed that children of divorce whose marriages were less than “very happy” communicated less and were more than twice as likely to argue frequently and to shout and hit when they argued.52)

The child with an available father, both in the early and the adolescent years, is more companionable and responsible as an adult.53) In particular, “boys who feel close to their fathers, regardless of biological status, have better attitudes about intimacy and the prospect of their own married lives than boys who do not feel close to their fathers.”54)

7. Cohabitation

Children of divorced parents are more likely to have more positive attitudes towards cohabitation55) and more negative attitudes towards marriage than children of always-married parents.56) When they leave home, they are two to three times as likely to cohabit57) and to do so earlier,58) especially if their parents divorced during their teenage years.59)

Daughters of divorced parents anticipated cohabiting before marriage, regardless of the amount of affection between them and their fathers. Among daughters of intact marriages, it was mainly those with poor relationships with their fathers who anticipated they would cohabit.60)

According to the General Social Surveys (GSS), 18 percent of adults who were raised in an intact family have ever been divorced or separated, compared to 28 percent of those who lived in a non-intact family.61) (See Chart Below)

Divorce or Separation in Adulthood by Family Structure in Adolescence

1) Ming Cui and Frank D. Fincham, “The Differential Effects of Parental Divorce and Marital Conflict on Young Adult Romantic Relationships,” Personal Relationships 17, (2010): 340.
2) , 48) Susan E. Jacquet and Catherine A. Surra, “Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics,” Journal of Marriage and Family 63, (2001): 627-638.
3) , 5) Susan E. Jacquet and Catherine A. Surra, “Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics,” Journal of Marriage and Family 63, (2001): 627.
4) Susan E. Jacquet and Catherine A. Surra, “Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics,” Journal of Marriage and Family 63, (2001): 634.
6) Stacy G. Johnston and Amanda M. Thomas, “Divorce versus Intact Parental Marriage and Perceived Risk and Dyadic Trust in Present Heterosexual Relationships,” Psychological Reports 78, (1996): 387-390.
7) , 11) Daniel J. Weigel, “Parental Divorce and the Types of Commitment-Related Messages People Gain from Their Families of Origin,” Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 47, (2007): 23.
8) Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, “The Consequences of Divorce for Attitudes toward Divorce and Gender Roles,” Journal of Family Issues 12, (1991): 306-322.
Inge Sieben and Ellen Verbakel, “Permissiveness Toward Divorce: The Influence of Divorce Experiences in Three Social Contexts,” European Sociological Review 29, no. 6 (2013): 1175, 1182, 1186.
9) A.M. Jennings, C.J. Salts, and T.A. Smith, Jr., “Attitudes Toward Marriage: Effects of Parental Conflict, Family Structure, and Gender,” Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 17, (1992): 67-78.
Huang Yun-Chen, and Lin Shu-Hui, “Attitudes of Taiwanese College Students toward Marriage: A Comparative Study of Different Family Types and Gender,” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 45, no. 3 (2014): 431-432.
10) , 54) Sharon C. Risch, Kathleen M. Jodl, and Jaquelynne S. Eccles, “Role of the Father-Adolescent Relationship in Shaping Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 66, (2004): 55.
12) Department of Health and Human Services, Changes in Marriage and Fertility Behavior: Behavior versus Attitudes of Young Adults Kristin A. Moore and Thomas M. Stief, (Child Trends, Inc., July 1989).
Paul R. Amato, and Danelle D. DeBoer, “The Transmission of Marital Instability Across Generations: Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage?,” Journal Of Marriage & Family 63, no. 4 (November 2001): 1038, 1046.
13) Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling and Colleen Dostal, “Retrospective Reports of Family-of-Origin Divorce and Abuse and College Students’ Pre-parenthood Cognitions,” Journal of Family Violence 11, (1996): 331-348.
14) Mick Cunningham, and Arland Thornton, “Direct and Indirect Influences of Parents' Marital Instability on Children's Attitudes Toward Cohabitation in Young Adulthood,” Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage 46, no. 3/4 (2007): 125, 136.
15) E. Mazur, “Developmental Differences in Children’s Understanding of Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage,” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 14, (1993): 191-212.
16) Mick Cunningham and Arland Thornton, “The Influences of Parents’ and Offsprings’ Experience with Cohabitation, Marriage, and Divorce on Attitudes toward Divorce in Young Adulthood,” Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 44, no. 1/2 (2005): 131.
17) Mick Cunningham and Arland Thornton, “The Influences of Parents' and Offsprings' Experience with Cohabitation, Marriage, and Divorce on Attitudes Toward Divorce in Young Adulthood,” Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 44, no. 1 (2005): 119-144.
18) R.P Dennison and S.S. Koerner, “Post-Divorce Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Attitudes About Marriage,” Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 45, no. 1 (2006): 40.
19) R.P. Dennison and S.S. Koerner, “A Look at Hopes and Worries about Marriage: The Views of Adolescents Following a Parental Divorce,” Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 48, no. 3/4 (2008): 98.
20) Heidi R. Riggio and Dana A. Weiser, “Attitudes toward Marriage: Embeddedness and Outcomes in Personal Relationships,” Personal Relationships 15, (2008): 134.
21) Judith Wallerstein and Sandra Blakeslee, Second Chances: Men, Women & Children a Decade after Divorce: Who Wins, Who Loses– and Why (New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1989; Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996), 169-172. Citations are to the Houghton Mifflin edition.
G.K. Rhoades, et al, “Parents' Marital Status, Conflict, and Role Modeling: Links With Adult Romantic Relationship Quality,” Journal Of Divorce & Remarriage 53, no. 5 (2012): 348, 358.
22) S.E. Jacquet and C.A. Surra, “Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics,” Journal of Marriage and Family 63, (2001): 636.
23) S.W. Whitton, G.K. Rhoades, S.M. Stanley, and H.J. Markman, “Effects of Parental Divorce on Marital Commitment and Confidence,” Journal of Family Psychology 22, (2008): 791.
24) Sharon C. Risch, Kathleen M. Jodl, and Jaquelynne S. Eccles, “Role of the Father-Adolescent Relationship in Shaping Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 66, (2004): 55-56.
25) Steven A. Kagel and Karen M. Schilling, “Sexual Identification and Gender Identity among Father-Absent Males,” Sex Roles 13, (1985): 357-370.
26) Silvio Silvestri, “Marital Instability in Men from Intact and Divorced Families: Interpersonal Behavior, Cognitions and Intimacy,” Journal of Divorce and Remarriage 18, (1992): 79-106.
27) R. Bolgar, H. Zweig-Frank, and J. Paris, “Childhood Antecedents of Interpersonal Problems in Young Adult Children of Divorce,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 34, (1995): 143-150.
28) Robert E. Billingham and Nicole L. Notebaert, “Divorce and Dating Violence Revisited: Multivariate Analyses Using Straus’s Conflict Tactics Subscores,” Psychological Reports 73, (1993): 679-684.
29) Pamela S. Webster, Terri L. Orbuch, and James S. House, “Effects of Childhood Family Background on Adult Marital Quality and Perceived Stability,” American Journal of Sociology 101, (1995): 404-432.
David M. Fergusson, Geraldine F. H. McLeod, and L. John Horwood, “Parental Separation/Divorce in Childhood and Partnership Outcomes at Age 30,” Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry 55, no. 4 (2014): 352, 357
30) Researchers have found that the children of violent parents do better if their parents separate. However, if the parents’ conflict is not violent or intense, their children fare better in their own marriages if their parents remain married. Obviously, the best solution for all concerned is that parents learn how to handle conflict and to cooperate with each other, thereby restoring family harmony.
31) Paul R. Amato, “Parental Divorce and Attitudes Toward Marriage and Family Life,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 50, (1988): 453-461; William G. Axinn and Arland Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,” Demography 33, (1996): 66-81; Sarah R. Crissey, “Race/Ethnic Differences in The Marital Expectations of Adolescents: The Role of Romantic Relationships,” Journal of Marriage and Family 67, (2005): 697-709; Fiona L. Tasker and Martin P.M. Richards, “Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Marriage and Marital Prospects After Parental Divorce: A Review,” Journal of Adolescent Research 9, (1994): 340-362. As cited in Wendy D. Manning, Monica A. Longmore, and Peggy C. Giordano, “The Changing Institution of Marriage: Adolescents’ Expectation to Cohabit and to Marry,” Journal of Marriage and Family 69, (2007): 559-575.
32) Patrick F. Fagan and Robert Rector, “The Effects of Divorce on America,” Backgrounder 1373 (Washington, D.C.: The Heritage Foundation, 5 June 2000).
33) William G. Axinn and Arland Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,” Demography 33, (1996): 73.
Huang Yun-Chen and Lin Shu-Hui. “Attitudes of Taiwanese College Students toward Marriage: A Comparative Study of Different Family Types and Gender,” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 45, no. 3 (2014): 431-432.
34) William G. Axinn and Arland Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,” Demography 33, (1996): 73.
35) Larry L. Bumpass, Teresa C. Martin, and James A. Sweet, “The Impact of Family Background and Early Marital Factors on Marital Disruption,” Journal of Family Issues 12, (1991): 22-42; Verna M. Keith and Barbara Finlay, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children’s Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 50, (1988): 797-809; Richard A. Kulka and Helen Weingarten, “The Longterm Effects of Parental Divorce in Childhood on Adult Adjustment,” Journal of Social Issues 35, (1979): 50-78; C.W. Mueller and H. Pope, “Marital Instability: A Study of Its Transmission between Generations,” Journal of Marriage and Family 39, (1977): 83-93; H. Pope and C.W. Mueller, “The Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Instability: Comparisons by Race and Sex,” Journal of Social Issues 32, (1976): 49-66. All as cited in Paul Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 58, (1996): 628.
Paul R. Amato, and Danelle D. DeBoer, “The Transmission of Marital Instability Across Generations: Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage?,” Journal Of Marriage & Family 63, no. 4 (2001): 1038.
36) Verna M. Keith and Barbara Finlay, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children’s Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 50, (1988): 804.
37) Jay D. Teachman, “Childhood Living Arrangements and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 64, (2002): 717-729.
Nicholas H. Wolfinger, “Beyond the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce: Do People Replicate the Patterns of Marital Instability They Grew Up With?” Journal of Family Issues 21, (2000): 1061-1086.
J.S. Tucker, H.S. Friedman, J.E. Schwartz, M.H. Criqui, C. Tomlinson-Keasey, D.L. Wingard, and L.R. Martin, “Parental Divorce: Effects on Individual Behavior and Longevity,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73, (1997): 385-386.
Paul R. Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 58, (1996): 628-640.
Verna M. Keith and Barbara Finlay, “The Impact of Parental Divorce on Children’s Educational Attainment, Marital Timing, and Likelihood of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 50, (1988): 797-809.
Norval D. Glenn and Kathryn B. Kramer, “The Marriages and Divorces of the Children of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 49, (1987): 811-825.
Sara McLanahan and Larry Bumpass, “Intergenerational Consequences of Family Disruption,” American Journal of Sociology 94, (1988): 130-152.
Paul R. Amato and Bruce Keith, “Parental Divorce and Adult Well-being: A Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Marriage and Family 53, (1991): 43-58.
Paul R. Amato and Danelle D. DeBoer, “The Transmission of Marital Instability across Generations: Relationship Skills or Commitment to Marriage?” Journal of Marriage and the Family 63, (2001): 1054.
38) Pamala S. Webster, Terri L. Orbuch, and James S. House, “Effects of Childhood Family Background on Adult Marital Quality and Perceived Stability,” American Journal of Sociology 101, (1995): 404-432.
39) Jay D. Teachman, “Childhood Living Arrangements and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and the Family 64, (2002): 722
40) Nicholas H. Wolfinger, “Family Structure Homogamy: The Effects of Parental Divorce on Partner Selection and Marital Stability,” Social Science Research 32, (2003): 91-92.
41) Nicholas H. Wolfinger, “Beyond the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce: Do People Replicate the Patterns of Marital Instability They Grew Up With?” Journal of Family Issues 21, no. 8 (2000): 1074.
42) Nicholas H. Wolfinger, “Beyond the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce: Do People Replicate the Patterns of Marital Instability They Grew Up With?” Journal of Family Issues 21, no. 8 (2000): 1075.
43) Norval D. Glenn and Kathryn B. Kramer, “The Marriages and Divorces of the Children of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 49, (1987): 811-825.
44) Paul R. Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 58, (1996): 628.
45) Paul R. Amato and Alan Booth, A Generation at Risk (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 115.
46) According to Amato and Booth’s research, the risk is highest when the divorce takes place before the child reaches age 13. The risk that the child will divorce decreases significantly when their parents’ divorce takes place during the teen years. Finally, parental divorce when their offspring are in their twenties may even inoculate them against divorce. See Paul Amato, “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 58, (1996): 638.
47) Susan E. Jacquet and Catherine A. Surra, “Parental Divorce and Premarital Couples: Commitment and Other Relationship Characteristics,” Journal of Marriage and Family 63, (2001): 633.
49) S. Schamess, “The Search for Love: Unmarried Adolescent Mothers’ Views of and Relationships with Men,” Adolescence 28, (1993): 425-437.
50) Susan G. Timmer and Joseph Veroff, “Family Ties and the Discontinuity of Divorce in Black and White Newlywed Couples,” Journal of Marriage and Family 62, (2000): 349-361.
51) Paul R. Amato and Stacy Rogers, “A Longitudinal Study of Marital Problems and Subsequent Divorce,” Journal of Marriage and Family 59, (1997): 621.
52) Pamela S. Webster, Terri L. Orbuch, and James S. House, “Effects of Childhood Family Background on Adult Marital Quality and Perceived Stability,” American Journal of Sociology 101, (1995): 404-432.
53) John Snarey, How Fathers Care for the Next Generation (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 163-164.
55) W.G. Axinn and A. Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes Toward Family Formation,” Demography 33, (1996) 66-81.
S. Southworth and J.C. Schwarz, “Post-Divorce Contact, Relationship with Father, and Heterosexual Trust in Female College Students,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 57, (1987): 379-381.
M. Cunningham, and A. Thornton, “Direct and Indirect Influences of Parents' Marital Instability on Children's Attitudes Toward Cohabitation in Young Adulthood,” Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 46, no. 3/4 (2007): 125.
56) William G. Axinn and Arland Thornton, “The Influence of Parents’ Marital Dissolutions on Children’s Attitudes toward Family Formation,” Demography 33, (1996): 66-81.
Huang Yun-Chen and Lin Shu-Hui, “Attitudes of Taiwanese College Students toward Marriage: A Comparative Study of Different Family Types and Gender,” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 45, no. 3 (2014): 431.
57) Daniel T. Lichter, Deborah R. Graefe, and J.B. Brown, “Is Marriage a Panacea? Union Formation among Economically Disadvantaged Unwed Mothers,” Social Problems 50, (2003): 60-86.
R.A. Colman and C.S. Widom, “Childhood Abuse and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study,” Child Abuse and Neglect 28, (2004): 1133-1151.
Jay D. Teachman, “The Childhood Living Arrangement of Children and the Characteristics of Their Marriages,” Journal of Family Issues 25, (2004): 86-111.
58) Andrew J. Cherlin, Kathleen E. Kiernan, and P. Linsday Chase-Lansdale, “Parental Divorce in Childhood and Demographic Outcomes in Young Adulthood,” Demography 32, (1995): 299-316.
59) Paul R. Amato and Arland Booth, A Generation at Risk (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997), 112.
60) Suzanne Southworth and J. Conrad Schwarz, “Post-Divorce Contact, Relationship with Father, and Heterosexual Trust in Female College Students,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 57, (1987): 379-381.
61) This chart draws on data collected by the General Social Surveys, 1972-2006. From 1972 to 1993, the sample size averaged 1,500 each year. No GSS was conducted in 1979, 1981, or 1992. Since 1994, the GSS has been conducted only in even-numbered years and uses two samples per GSS that total approximately 3,000. In 2006, a third sample was added for a total sample size of 4,510.
Patrick F. Fagan and Althea Nagai, “Mapping America 62: Divorce or Separation: Family Structure in Adolescence,” Mapping America Project. Available at http://marri.us/get.cfm?i=MA09F02.


This entry draws heavily from Effects of Divorce on Children.