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effects_of_family_structure_on_the_economy [2017/09/15 10:55]
marri [1. Marriage]
effects_of_family_structure_on_the_economy [2017/09/15 11:20] (current)
marri [5. Single Parenthood]
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 //(See [[effects.of.stepfamilies.on.financial.stability|Effects of Stepfamilies on Financial Stability]])//​ //(See [[effects.of.stepfamilies.on.financial.stability|Effects of Stepfamilies on Financial Stability]])//​
  
-Remarriage after divorce increases a family’s income, though income and net worth rarely rise to pre-divorce levels. However, children whose mothers remarry after divorce are less likely to live in poverty than those whose [[effects.of.cohabitation.on.financial.stability|cohabit]] after divorce.+Remarriage after divorce increases a family’s income, though income and net worth rarely rise to pre-divorce levels.((Janet Wilmoth and Gregor Koso, “Does Marital History Matter? Marital Status and Wealth Outcomes among Preretirement Adults,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 64, no. 1 (2002): 261.)) ​However, children whose mothers remarry after divorce are less likely to live in poverty than those whose [[effects.of.cohabitation.on.financial.stability|cohabit]] after divorce.((Robert I. Lerman, “Impacts of Marital Status and Parental Presence on the Material Hardship of Families with Children,​” Urban Institute (2002).))
  
 =====3. Divorce===== =====3. Divorce=====
 //(See [[effects.of.divorce.on.financial.stability|Effects of Divorce on Financial Stability]])//​ //(See [[effects.of.divorce.on.financial.stability|Effects of Divorce on Financial Stability]])//​
  
-Following a divorce, both spouses’ net worth decreases. Many women also sustain substantial income losses and are forced into poverty, particularly if the couple has any children. If they do, women frequently must care for them financially or developmentally on their own, which also depresses their economic well-being. Even among women who receive child support, many custodial mothers are impoverished. Divorce severely diminishes child economic well-being, particularly child economic mobility.+Following a divorce, both spouses’ net worth decreases.((Jay L. Zagorsky, “Marriage and Divorce’s Impact on Wealth,” //Journal of Sociology// 41, no. 4 (2005).)) ​Many women also sustain substantial income losses and are forced into poverty, particularly if the couple has any children.((Thomas L. Hanson, Sara S. McLanahan, and Elizabeth Thomson, “Windows on Divorce: Before and After,” //Social Science Research// 27, (1998).)) ​If they do, women frequently must care for them financially or developmentally on their own, which also depresses their economic well-being. Even among women who receive child support, many custodial mothers are impoverished. Divorce severely diminishes child economic well-being, particularly child economic mobility.((Thomas DeLeire and Leonard M. Lopoo, “Family Structure and the Economic Mobility of Children,​” //Economic Mobility Project// (2010). Available at [[http://​www.economicmobility.org/​assets/​pdfs/​Family_Structure.pdf]],​ 14 March 2011, 15.  
 +Kenneth A. Couch and Dean R. Lillard, “Divorce, Educational Attainment, and the Earnings Mobility of Sons,” //Journal of Family and Economic Issues// 18, no. 3 (1997): 241.))
  
 =====4. Cohabitation===== =====4. Cohabitation=====
 //(See [[effects.of.cohabitation.on.financial.stability|Effects of Cohabitation on Financial Stability]])//​ //(See [[effects.of.cohabitation.on.financial.stability|Effects of Cohabitation on Financial Stability]])//​
  
-Cohabiting relationships are frequently unstable and of [[cohabitation.and.future.marital.stability|short duration]]. Cohabitation produces weaker economic outcomes than marriage, according to all economic metrics examined. Cohabiting men have less stable employment histories than married men, and cohabiting couples earn less and are less likely to pool their incomes than married households. They also have low net worth and low net worth growth, are more likely to be poor, and create a less stable environment for children, compared to married households.+Cohabiting relationships are frequently unstable and of [[cohabitation.and.future.marital.stability|short duration]]. Cohabitation produces weaker economic outcomes than marriage, according to all economic metrics examined.((Patrick F Fagan, Andrew J. Kidd, and Henry Potrykus, "​Marriage and Economic Well-Being: The Economy of the Family Rises or Falls with Marriage",​ Marriage and Religion Research Institute (2004).)) ​Cohabiting men have less stable employment histories than married men,((B.V. Brown, “The Single-Father Family: Demographic,​ Economic, and Public Transfer Use Characteristics,​” //Marriage and Family Review// 29, (2000).)) ​and cohabiting couples earn less and are less likely to pool their incomes than married households.((Kristen R. Heimdal and Sharon K. Houseknecht,​ “Cohabiting and Married Couples’ Income Organization:​ Approaches in Sweden and the United States,” //Journal of Marriage and Family// 65, no. 3 (2003).)) ​They also have low net worth and low net worth growth,((Julie Zissimopoulos,​ “Gain and Loss: Marriage and Wealth Changes over Time,” Michigan Retirement Research Center, Working Paper (2009).)) ​are more likely to be poor, and create a less stable environment for children, compared to married households.((Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill, “For Love and Money? The Impact of Family Structure on Family Income,” //The Future of Children// 15, no. 2, (2005). 
 +Peter D. Brandon and Larry Bumpass, “Children’s Living Arrangements,​ Coresidence of Unmarried Fathers, and Welfare Receipt,” //Journal of Family Issues// 22, (2001).  
 +Wendy D. Manning and Daniel T. Lichter, “Parental Cohabitation and Children'​s Economic Well-Being,​” //Journal of Marriage and the Family// 58, (1996).))
  
 =====5. Single Parenthood===== =====5. Single Parenthood=====
 //(See [[effects.of.single.parents.on.financial.stability|Effects of Single Parents on Financial Stability]])//​ //(See [[effects.of.single.parents.on.financial.stability|Effects of Single Parents on Financial Stability]])//​
  
-Single parents, and single mothers, in particular, face remarkably difficult economic circumstances. Single mothers have the [[effects_of_family_structure_on_income|lowest median income]] and the lowest net worth of all family structures with children. ​Half of single mothers live in [[effects_of_single_parents_on_poverty_rates|poverty]],​ and an estimated 60 percent [[effects_of_welfare_on_families|rely on government welfare]]. Children of single mothers are at increased likelihood of dependence on welfare benefits during childhood and enjoy less economic mobility than children in married families as adults.+Single parents, and single mothers, in particular, face remarkably difficult economic circumstances. Single mothers have the [[effects_of_family_structure_on_income|lowest median income]]((Julie DaVanzo and M. Omar Rahman, “American Families: Trends and Correlates,​” //​Population Index// 59, no. 3 (1993).)) ​and the lowest net worth((Lingxin Hao, “Family Structure, Private Transfers, and the Economic Well-Being of Families with Children,​” //Social Forces// 75, no. 1 (1996).)) ​of all family structures with children. ​Almost half of single mothers live in [[effects_of_single_parents_on_poverty_rates|poverty]],​((Julie DaVanzo and M. Omar Rahman, “American Families: Trends and Correlates,​” //​Population Index// 59, no. 3 (1993).)) ​and an estimated 60 percent [[effects_of_welfare_on_families|rely on government welfare]].((Neil G. Bennett, David E. Bloom, and Cynthia K. Miller, “The Influence of Nonmarital Childbearing on Formation of First Marriages,​” //​Demography//​ 32, (1995).)) ​Children of single mothers are at increased likelihood of dependence on welfare benefits during childhood and enjoy less economic mobility than children in married families as adults.((Thomas DeLeire and Leonard M. Lopoo, “Family Structure and the Economic Mobility of Children,​” //Economic Mobility Project//, (2010). Available at [[http://​www.economicmobility.org/​assets/​pdfs/​Family_Structure.pdf]].))
  
 Long-term income, wealth and hence poverty are largely a matter of choice in America today—the choice of marriage and the pathways to it. This is not only due to all associated structural correlates, but also is based on the revealed income-earning capacities of the different householders,​ as exemplified by the marriage premium, and on their “home-economics” wealth-management choices, as exemplified by the strong net-worth accrual of the intact married family (especially when controlling for other socio-economic factors). Choice about marriage is mainly a choice about how to handle sexual capacities and [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.sexual.activity|sexual relationships]]. Long-term income, wealth and hence poverty are largely a matter of choice in America today—the choice of marriage and the pathways to it. This is not only due to all associated structural correlates, but also is based on the revealed income-earning capacities of the different householders,​ as exemplified by the marriage premium, and on their “home-economics” wealth-management choices, as exemplified by the strong net-worth accrual of the intact married family (especially when controlling for other socio-economic factors). Choice about marriage is mainly a choice about how to handle sexual capacities and [[effects.of.divorce.on.children.s.sexual.activity|sexual relationships]].