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studies_on_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link [2015/07/14 10:30]
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studies_on_the_abortion-breast_cancer_link [2017/06/12 11:00] (current)
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 ==========Studies on the Abortion-Breast Cancer Link========== ==========Studies on the Abortion-Breast Cancer Link==========
  
-//Research Synthesis//: ​[[http://downloads.frc.org/EF/EF14B56.pdf|Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer]]+The numerical risks associated with induced abortion (and its related circumstances,​ which vary by study) are listed for each study below.((This entry draws heavily from [[http://marri.us/research/​research-papers/​induced-abortion-and-breast-cancer/|Induced Abortion and Breast Cancer]].)) The [[common_problems_in_abortion-breast_cancer_studies|quality of the studies]] assessing the relationship between induced abortion and breast cancer varies. Many studies concerning breast cancer risk have shown induced abortion to be a risk for breast cancer, in both western and non-western societies. Of the 72 epidemiological studies we have assessed that differentiate induced from spontaneous abortions (or whose data have been re-analyzed to do so), 21 studies show some positive and significant relationship between induced abortion and breast cancer. Seven studies show a positive and marginally significant relationship between the two. Two ecological epidemiological studies have also shown an association between the two. 
  
-^No. ^Year ^Reference ^OR or RR (95% CI) ^Statistically Significant ^Positive or Negative Correlation ^Country or Population ^ +^No. ^Year ^Reference ^OR or RR (95% CI)((**BC**- Breast cancer \\ **IA**- Induced abortion \\ **FFTP**- First full-term pregnancy \\ **Luminal A cancer**- Estrogen positive and HER2 negative \\ **Nulliparous**- Has never given birth \\ **Parous**- Has given birth \\ *Odds ratio obtained from 1996 Brind)) ^Statistically Significant ^Positive or Negative Correlation ^Country or Population ^ 
 |1 |1957 |M. Segi, I. Fukushima, S. Fujisaku, M. Kurihara, S. Saito, K. Asano, and M. Kamoi, “An Epidemiological Study on Cancer in Japan,” //Japanese Journal of Cancer Research// (GANN) 48 (Suppl.) (1957): 1-63. |2.63 (1.85-3.75)* |Yes |Positive |Japan | |1 |1957 |M. Segi, I. Fukushima, S. Fujisaku, M. Kurihara, S. Saito, K. Asano, and M. Kamoi, “An Epidemiological Study on Cancer in Japan,” //Japanese Journal of Cancer Research// (GANN) 48 (Suppl.) (1957): 1-63. |2.63 (1.85-3.75)* |Yes |Positive |Japan |
 |2 |1968 |H. Watanabe and T. Hirayama, “Epidemiology and Clinical Aspects of Breast Cancer,” //Nippon Rinsho// 26 (1968): 1843-1849 (in Japanese). |1.51 (0.91-2.53)* |No |Positive |Japan | |2 |1968 |H. Watanabe and T. Hirayama, “Epidemiology and Clinical Aspects of Breast Cancer,” //Nippon Rinsho// 26 (1968): 1843-1849 (in Japanese). |1.51 (0.91-2.53)* |No |Positive |Japan |
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 |15 |1988 |T. Rohan, A.J. McMichael, and P.A. Baghurst, "A population-based case-control study of diet and breast cancer in Australia,"​ //American Journal of Epidemiology//​ 128 (1988): 478-489, data in N. Andrieu, S.W. Duffy, T.E. Rohan, M.G. Lê, E. Luporsi, M. Gerber, R. Renaud, D.G. Zaridze, Y. Lifanova, and N.E. Day, “Familial Risk, Abortion and Their Interactive Effect on the Risk of Breast Cancer—A Combined Analysis of Six Case-Control Studies,” //British Journal of Cancer// 72, no. 3 (1995): 744-751. |2.7 (1.1-6.7) if 1 IA; 2.2 (.4-12.0) if ≥2 IA |Yes/ No |Positive |Australia | |15 |1988 |T. Rohan, A.J. McMichael, and P.A. Baghurst, "A population-based case-control study of diet and breast cancer in Australia,"​ //American Journal of Epidemiology//​ 128 (1988): 478-489, data in N. Andrieu, S.W. Duffy, T.E. Rohan, M.G. Lê, E. Luporsi, M. Gerber, R. Renaud, D.G. Zaridze, Y. Lifanova, and N.E. Day, “Familial Risk, Abortion and Their Interactive Effect on the Risk of Breast Cancer—A Combined Analysis of Six Case-Control Studies,” //British Journal of Cancer// 72, no. 3 (1995): 744-751. |2.7 (1.1-6.7) if 1 IA; 2.2 (.4-12.0) if ≥2 IA |Yes/ No |Positive |Australia |
 |16 |1988 |Lynn Rosenberg, Julie R. Palmer, David W. Kaufman, Brian L. Strom, David Schottenfeld,​ and Samuel Shapiro, “Breast Cancer in Relation to the Occurrence and Time of Induced and Spontaneous Abortion,​” //American Journal of Epidemiology//​ 127 (1988): 981-989. |1.2 (.9-1.6) if parous; 1.3 (.8-2.2) if nulliparous |No |Positive |United States | |16 |1988 |Lynn Rosenberg, Julie R. Palmer, David W. Kaufman, Brian L. Strom, David Schottenfeld,​ and Samuel Shapiro, “Breast Cancer in Relation to the Occurrence and Time of Induced and Spontaneous Abortion,​” //American Journal of Epidemiology//​ 127 (1988): 981-989. |1.2 (.9-1.6) if parous; 1.3 (.8-2.2) if nulliparous |No |Positive |United States |
-|17 |1989 |B.M. Lindefors Harris, G. Eklund, O. Meirik, L.E. Rutqvist, and K. Wiklund, "Risk of cancer of the breast after legal abortion during first trimester: a Swedish register study,"​ //British Medical Journal// 299, no. 6713 (1989): 1430-1432. |0.77 (0.58-0.99) ​ |Yes |Negative |Sweden/ Norway+|17 |1989 |B.M. Lindefors Harris, G. Eklund, O. Meirik, L.E. Rutqvist, and K. Wiklund, "Risk of cancer of the breast after legal abortion during first trimester: a Swedish register study,"​ //British Medical Journal// 299, no. 6713 (1989): 1430-1432. |0.77 (0.58-0.99) ​ |Yes |Negative |Sweden/ Norway ​|
 |18 |1989 |Holly L. Howe, Ruby T. Senie, Helen Bzduch, and Peter Herzfeld, “Early Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Under Age 40,” //​International Journal of Epidemiology//​ 18 (1989): 300-304. |1.9 (1.2-3.0) ​ |Yes |Positive |United States | |18 |1989 |Holly L. Howe, Ruby T. Senie, Helen Bzduch, and Peter Herzfeld, “Early Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Under Age 40,” //​International Journal of Epidemiology//​ 18 (1989): 300-304. |1.9 (1.2-3.0) ​ |Yes |Positive |United States |
 |19 |1989 |Larissa I. Remennick, “Reproductive Patterns and Cancer Incidence in Women: A Population-Based Correlation Study in the USSR,” //​International Journal of Epidemiology//​ 18, no. 3 (September 1989): 498-510. |data not in the form of OR |Yes |Positive |USSR| |19 |1989 |Larissa I. Remennick, “Reproductive Patterns and Cancer Incidence in Women: A Population-Based Correlation Study in the USSR,” //​International Journal of Epidemiology//​ 18, no. 3 (September 1989): 498-510. |data not in the form of OR |Yes |Positive |USSR|
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 |22 |1992 |Fabio Parazzini, Carlo La Vecchia, Eva Negri, Silvia Franceschi, and Luca Bocciolone, "​Menstrual and reproductive factors and breast cancer in women with family history of the disease,"​ //​International Journal of Cancer// 51, issue 5 (1992): 677-681. |1.0 (.4-2.2) |No |Null |Italy| |22 |1992 |Fabio Parazzini, Carlo La Vecchia, Eva Negri, Silvia Franceschi, and Luca Bocciolone, "​Menstrual and reproductive factors and breast cancer in women with family history of the disease,"​ //​International Journal of Cancer// 51, issue 5 (1992): 677-681. |1.0 (.4-2.2) |No |Null |Italy|
 |23 |1993 |A.E. Laing, F.M. Demenais, R. Williams, G. Kissling, V.W. Chen, and G.E. Bonney, “Breast Cancer Risk Factors in African-American Women: The Howard University Tumor Registry Experience,​” //Journal of the National Medical Association//​ 85 (1993): 931-939. |4.7 (2.6-8.4) if IA and diagnosed BC ≥ 50 yrs old; if BC 41-49 yrs old, 2.8 (1.0-8.1); if BC ≤40 yrs old, 1.5 (0.7-3.5) |Yes/ Marginal/ No |Positive |United States | |23 |1993 |A.E. Laing, F.M. Demenais, R. Williams, G. Kissling, V.W. Chen, and G.E. Bonney, “Breast Cancer Risk Factors in African-American Women: The Howard University Tumor Registry Experience,​” //Journal of the National Medical Association//​ 85 (1993): 931-939. |4.7 (2.6-8.4) if IA and diagnosed BC ≥ 50 yrs old; if BC 41-49 yrs old, 2.8 (1.0-8.1); if BC ≤40 yrs old, 1.5 (0.7-3.5) |Yes/ Marginal/ No |Positive |United States |
- +|24 |1993 |Carlo La Vecchia, Eva Negri, Silvia Franceschi, Fabio Parazzini, "​Long-term impact of reproductive factors on cancer risk," //​International Journal of Cancer// 53, issue 2 (1993): 215-219. |1.0 if 1 IA, ns; .8 if ≥ 2 IA, p < .05 |No/ Yes |Null/ Negative |Italy | 
-{{ :abc_studies1-5.jpg?​direct&​750 ​|}} +|25 |1993 |Miriam Moseson, Karen L. Koenig, Roy E. Shore, and Bernard S. Pasternack, "The influence of medical conditions associated with hormones on the risk of breast cancer,"​ //​International Journal of Epidemiology//​ 22, issue 6 (1993)1000-1009. |1.0 (0.7-1.4) |No |Negative |United States | 
-{{ :abc_studies6-9.jpg?​direct&​750 ​|}} +|26 |1994 |N. Andrieu, F. Clavel, B. Gairard, L. Piana, A. Bremond, J. Lansac, R. Flamant, and R. Renaud, "​Familial risk of breast cancer and abortion,"​ //Cancer Detection and Prevention//​ 18, no. 1 (1994): 51-55. |1.2 (0.8-1.8) if 1 IA; .9 (.5-1.7) if ≥ 2 IA |No |Positive/ Negative |France ​
-{{ :abc_studies10-13.jpg?direct&750 |}} +|27 |1994 |Janet R. Daling, Kathleen E. Malone, Lynda F. Voigt, Emily White, and Noel S. Weiss, “Risk of Breast Cancer among Young WomenRelationship to Induced Abortions,​” //Journal of the National Cancer Institute// 86 (1994): 1584-1592. |1.5 (1.2-1.9) |Yes |Positive |United States | 
-{{ :abc_studies14-15.jpg?direct&750 |}} +|28 |1994 |A.E. Laing, G.E. Bonney, L. Adams-Campbell,​ et al., “Reproductive and Lifestyle Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in African-American Women,” //Genetic Epidemiology//​ 11 (1994): A300. |2.44 (1.0-6.0)* |Yes |Positive |United States | 
-{{ :abc_studies16-19.jpg?​direct&​750 ​|}}+|29 |1995 |N. Andrieu, S.W. Duffy, T.E. Rohan, M.G. Lê, E. Luporsi, M. Gerber, R. Renaud, D.G. Zaridze, Y. Lifanova, and N.E. Day, “Familial Risk, Abortion and Their Interactive Effect on the Risk of Breast Cancer—A Combined Analysis of Six Case-Control Studies,” //British Journal of Cancer// 72, no. 3 (1995)744-751 |1.5 (1.1-1.9) if 1 IA |Yes |Positive |Multinational | 
 +|30 |1995 |Louise A. Brinton, Janet R. Daling Jr., Jonathan M. Liff, Janet B. Schoenberg, Kathleen E. Malone, Janet L. Stanford, Ralph J. Coates, Marilie D. Gammon, Louise Hanson, and Robert N. Hoover, "Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk among younger women,"​ //Journal of the National Cancer Institute// 87 (1995): 827-835. |0.98 (0.8-1.2) 1 IA; 1.02 (0.8-1.4) if ≥ 2 IA |No |Negative/ Positive |United States | 
 +|31 |1995 |L. Bu, L.F. Voigt, Z. Yu, K.E. Malone, and J.R. Daling, “Risk of breast cancer associated with induced abortion in a population at low risk of breast cancer,” //American Journal of Epidemiology//​ 141 (1995): S85 (abstract 337).| 2.9 (1.9-4.4) if 1 IA; 3.6 (2.2-6.0) if ≤ 2 IA; 4.5 (1.9-10.7) if BC ≤ 35 yrs old |Yes |Positive |China | 
 +|32 |1995 |Loren Lipworth, Klea Katsouyanni,​ Anders Ekbom, Karin B. Michels, and Dimitrios Trichopoulos,​ “Abortion and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Greece,” //​International Journal of Cancer// 61 (1995): 181-184. |1.51 (1.24-1.84);​ 2.06 (1.45-2.9) if IA before FFTP among parous women |Yes |Positive |Greece | 
 +|33 |1996 |Janet R. Daling, Louise A. Brinton, Lynda F. Voigt, Noel S. Weiss, Ralph J. Crates, Kathleen E. Malone, Janet B. Schoenberg, and Marilie Gammon, “Risk of Breast Cancer among White Women Following Induced Abortion,​” //American Journal of Epidemiology//​ 144 (1996): 373-380.| 1.3 (1.0-1.6) if 1 IA |Marginal |Positive| United States | 
 +|34 |1996 |Polly A. Newcomb, Barry E. Storer, Matthew P. Longnecker, Robert Mittendorf, E. Robert Greenberg, and Walter C. Willett, “Pregnancy Termination in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer,” //Journal of the American Medical Association//​ 275 (1996): 283-287. |1.23 (1.0-1.51) |Marginal |Positive |United States | 
 +|35 |1996 |Matti A. Rookus and Flora E. van Leeuwen, “Induced Abortion and Risk for Breast Cancer: Reporting (Recall) Bias in a Dutch Case-Control Study,” //Journal of the National Cancer Institute// 88 (1996): 1759-1764. |1.9 (1.1-3.2); if before first birth, 2.6 (1.0-6.8) |Yes/ Marginal |Positive |Netherlands | 
 +|36 |1996 |R. Talamini, S. Franceschi, C. La Vecchia, E. Negri, L. Borsa, M. Montella, F. Falcini, E. Conti, and C. Rossi, “The Role of Reproductive and Menstrual Factors in Cancer of the Breast Before and After Menopause,​” //European Journal of Cancer// 32A, no. 2 (1996): 303-310. |1.2 (1.0-1.5) if 1 IA |Marginal |Positive |Italy | 
 +|37 |1996 |A. Tavani, C. La Vecchia, S. Franceschi, E. Negri, B. D’avanao, A. Decarli, "​Abortion and breast cancer risk," //​International Journal of Cancer// 65 (1996): 401-405. |1.2 (1.0-1.5) |Marginal |Positive |Italy | 
 +|38 |1996 |A.H. Wu, R.G. Ziegler, M.C. Pike, A.M. Nomura, D.W. West, L.N. Kolonel, P.L. Horn-Ross, J.F. Rosenthal, and R.N. Hoover, "​Menstrual and reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans,"​ //British Journal of Cancer// 73, no. 5 (1996): 680-686. |1.92 (0.7-5.3) if nulliparous and had only IAs |No |Positive |United States | 
 +|39 |1997 |Mads Melbye, Jan Wohlfahrt, Jørgen H. Olsen, Morten Frisch, Tine Westergaard,​ Karin Helweg-Larsen,​ and Per Kragh Andersen, “Induced Abortion and the Risk of Breast Cancer,” //New England Journal of Medicine// 336, no. 2 (1997): 81-85. |1.00 (.94-1.06) |No |Null |Denmark | 
 +|40 |1997 |Julie R. Palmer, Lynn Rosenberg, R. Sowmya Rao, Ann Zauber, Brian L. Strom, M. Ellen Warshauer, Paul D. Stolley, and Samuel Shapiro, “Induced and Spontaneous Abortion in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer (United States),” //Cancer Causes and Control// 8 (1997): 841-849. |1.3 (.9-1.9) if nulliparous;​ 1.1 (.9-1.5) if parous; 1.4 (1.0-1.8) if (parous) IA after one birth. |No/ Marginal |Positive |United States | 
 +|41 |1999 |F. Fioretti, A. Tavani, C. Bosetti, C. La Vecchia, E. Negri, F. Barbone, R. Talamini, and S. Franceschi, "Risk factors for breast cancer in nulliparous women,"​ //British Journal of Cancer// 78, no. 11/12 (1999): 1923-1928. |0.97 (0.64-1.47);​ if abortion ≥ 30 yrs old, 1.75 (1.03-2.97) |No/ Yes |Negative/ Positive |Italy | 
 +|42 |1999 |Pamela M. Marcus, Donna Day Baird, Robert C. Millikan, Patricia G. Moorman, Bahjat Qaqish, and Beth Newman, "​Adolescent reproductive events and subsequent breast cancer risk," //American Journal of Public Health// 89, no. 8 (1999): 1244-1247. |1.2 (.6-2.7) if first IA < age 20; 1.1 (.7-1.7) if first IA ≥ age 20 |No |Positive |United States | 
 +|43 |2000 |DeAnn Lazovich, Julie A. Thompson, Pamela J. Mink, Thomas A. Sellers, and Kristin Anderson, "​Induced abortion and breast cancer risk," //​Epidemiology//​ 11, no. 1 (2000): 76-80. |1.1 (0.8-1.6); if IA nulliparous,​ 1.7 (0.6-5.4) |No |Negative |United States | 
 +|44 |2000 |P.A. Newcomb and M.T. Mandelson, "A record-based evaluation of induced abortion and breast cancer risk," //Cancer Causes and Control// 11, no. 9 (2000): 777-781. |0.9 (0.5-1.6) |No |Negative |United States | 
 +|45 |2000 |M.T. Tang, N.S. Weiss, K.E. Malone, "​Induced abortion in relation to breast cancer among parous women: A birth certificate registry study,"​ //​Epidemiology//​ 11, no. 2 (2000): 177-180. |0.9 (0.7-1.2) if parous |No |Negative |United States | 
 +|46 |2001 |M.J. Goldacre, L.M. Kurina, V. Seagroatt, and D. Yeates, “Abortion and Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Record Linkage Study,” //Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health// 55, no. 5 (2001): 336-337. |0.83 (0.74-0.93) (observed v. expected BC cases) |Yes |Negative |Britain | 
 +|47 |2001 |C. Robertson, M. Van Den Donk, M. Primic-Zakelj,​ T. MacFarlane, and P. Boyle, "The association between induced and spontaneous abortion and risk of breast cancer in Slovenian women aged 25-54,"​ //Breast// 10 (2001): 291-298. |2.71 (0.72-10.26) if IA nulliparous;​ 1.29 (.77-2.17) if uniparous |No |Positive |Slovenia | 
 +|48 |2001 |M. Sanderson, X.O. Shu, F. Jin, Q. Dai, W. Wen, Y. Hua, Y.T. Gao, and W. Zheng, "​Abortion history and breast cancer risk: Results from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study,"​ //​International Journal of Cancer// 96, no. 6 (2001): 899-905. |1.0 (0.8-1.2) if  premenopausal BC; .9 (.7-1.2) if postmenopausal BC |No |Positive |China | 
 +|49 |2002 |Z. Ye, D.L. Gao, Q. Qin, R.M. Ray, and D.B. Thomas, "​Breast cancer in relation to induced abortions in a cohort of Chinese women,"​ //British Journal of Cancer// 87, no. 9 (2002): 976. |1.06 (0.84-1.33) |No |Positive |China | 
 +|50 |2003 |H. Becher, S. Schmidt, and J. Chang-Claude,​ "​Reproductive factors and familial predisposition for breast cancer by age 50 years. A case-control-family study for assessing main effects and possible gene-environment interaction,"​ //​International Journal of Epidemiology//​ 32 (2003): 38-50. |1.35 (1.03-1.78) |Yes |Positive |Germany | 
 +|51 |2003 |Gunnar Erlandsson, Scott M. Montgomery, Sven Cnattingius,​ and Anders Ekbom, "​Abortions and breast cancer: record-based case-control study,"​ //​International Journal of Cancer// 103, no. 5 (2003): 676-679. |0.8 (0.64-1.0) |Marginal |Negative |Sweden | 
 +|52 |2003 |M. Mahue-Giangreco,​ G. Ursin, J. Sullivan-Halley,​ and L. Bernstein, "​Induced abortion, miscarriage,​ and breast cancer risk of young women,"​ //Cancer Epidemiology,​ Biomarkers ​Prevention//​ 12 (2003): 209-214. |1.05 (0.75-1.48) if parous, 40 or younger; .69 (.46-1.04) if nulliparous,​ 40 or younger |No |Positive/ Negative |United States ​
 +|53 |2003 |Xavier Paoletti, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon,​ and the E3N group, "​Induced and spontaneous abortion and breast cancer riskresults from the E3N cohort study, //​International Journal of Cancer// 106, no. 2 (2003): 270-276|0.91 (0.82-0.99) ​ |Yes |Negative |France | 
 +|54 |2004 |Kathleen Meeske, Michael Press, Alpa Patel, and Leslie Bernstein, "​Impact of reproductive factors and lactation on breast carcinomas in situ," //​International Journal of Cancer// 110 (2004): 103-109. |1.04 (0.56-1.94) if nulliparous;​ .94 (.6-1.47) if parous, 1 IA |No |Positive/ Negative |United States | 
 +|55 |2004 |Julie R. Palmer, Lauren A. Wise, Lucile L. Adams-Campbell,​ and Lynn Rosenberg, "A prospective study of induced abortion and breast cancer in African-American women,"​ //Cancer Causes ​Control// 15, no. 2 (2004): 105-111. | 1.1 (0.8-1.4) if parous; 0.9 (0.5-1.4) if nulliparous |No |Positive/ Negative |United States ​
 +|56 |2005 |David H. Brewster, Diane L. Stockton, Richard Dobbie, Diana Bull, and Valerie Beral, “Risk of Breast Cancer after Miscarriage or Induced AbortionA Scottish Record Linkage Case-Control Study,” //Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health// 59, no. 4 (2005): 283-287. |0.8 (0.72-0.89) |Yes |Negative |Scotland | 
 +|57 |2006 |G.K. Reeves, et al., "​Breast cancer risk in relation to abortion: Results from the EPIC study,"​ //​International Journal of Cancer// 119, no. 7 (2006): 1741-1745. |0.95 (0.87-1.03) |No |Negative |Europe | 
 +|58 |2006 |K.A. Rosenblatt, D.L. Gao, R.M. Ray, M.R. Rowland, Z.C. Nelson, K.J. Wernli, W. Li, and D.B. Thomas, "​Induced abortions and the risk of all cancers combined and site-specific cancers in Shanghai,"​ //Cancer Causes and Control// 17, no. 10 (2006): 1275-1280. |1.01 (.92-1.12) |No |Positive |China | 
 +|59 |2006 |Najmeh Tehranian, M. Amelbaraez, R. Salke, and S. Faghihzadeh,​ “The effect of abortion on the risk of breast cancer” (Iranian study presented at a conference at McMaster University, 2006). http://​hdl.handle.net/​10755/​163877 |7.94 (2.05-26.21) with IA < 12 wks |Yes |Positive |Iran | 
 +|60 |2007 |Karin B. Michels, Fei Xue, Graham A. Colditz, and Walter C. Willett, “Induced and Spontaneous Abortion and Incidence of Breast Cancer among Young Women,” //Archives of Internal Medicine// 167, no.8 (2007): 814-820. |1.01 (0.88-1.17) |No |Positive |United States | 
 +|61 |2007 |Kourosh Holakouie Naieni, Ali Ardalan, Mahmood Mahmoodi, Abbas Motevalian, Yoosef Yahyapoor, and Bahareh Yazdizadeh, “Risk Factors of Breast Cancer in North of Iran: A Case-Control in Mazandaran Province,​” //Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention//​ 8, no. 3 (2007): 395-398. Available at http://​www.apocp.org/​cancer_download/​Volume8_No3/​395-398%20c_Naieni%204.pdf. |1.62 (1.13-2.31) |Yes |Positive |Iran | 
 +|62 |2008 | Katherine DeLellis Henderson, Jane Sullivan-Halley,​ Peggy Reynolds, Pamela L. Horn-Ross, Christina A. Clarke, Ellen T. Chang, Susan Neuhausen, Giske Ursind, and Leslie Bernstein, “Incomplete Pregnancy Is Not Associated with Breast Cancer Risk: the California Teachers Study,” //​Contraception//​ 77 (2008): 391-396. |.95 (.76-1.18) if nulliparous;​ 1.05 (0.92-1.2) if parous |No |Negative/ Positive |United States | 
 +|63 |2008 |Jie Lin and Jian-feng Yu, “A case control study on risk factors of breast cancer among women in Cixi,” //Zhejiang Journal of Preventive Medicine// 20, no. 6 (June 2008): 3-5. |2.38 (1.09-5.2) |Yes |Positive |China | 
 +|64 |2009 |Jessica M. Dolle, Janet R. Daling, Emily White, Louise A. Brinton, David R. Doody, Peggy L. Porter, and Kathleen E. Malone, “Risk Factors for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Women Under the Age of 45 Years,” //Cancer Epidemiology,​ Biomarkers and Prevention//​ 18, no. 4 (2009): 1157-1166. |1.4 (1.1-1.8) |Yes |Positive |United States | 
 +|65 |2009 |Vahit Ozmen, Beyza Ozcinar, Hasan Karanlik, Neslihan Cabioglu, Mustafa Tukenmez, Rian Disci, Tolga Ozmen, Abdullah Igci, Mahmut Muslumanoglu,​ Mustafa Kecer, and Atilla Soran, “Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Turkish Women– a University Hospital Based Nested Case Control Study,” //World Journal of Surgical Oncology// 7, no. 37 (2009). |1.66 (1.39-1.98) |Yes |Positive |Turkey | 
 +|66 |2009 |Peng Xing, Jiguang Li and Feng Jin, “A Case-Control Study of Reproductive Factors Associated with Subtypes of Breast Cancer in Northeast China,” //Medical Oncology// 27, no. 3 (2009): 926-931. |1.26 (1.05-1.52) for luminal A breast cancer |Yes |Positive |China | 
 +|67 | 2011 |L. Khachatryan,​ R. Scharpf, and S. Kagan, “Influence of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prolonged estrogen exposure on risk of breast cancer among women in Armenia,” //Health Care for Women International//​ 32, no. 11 (2011): 953-971.|2.86 (1.02-8.04) |Yes |Positive |Armenia | 
 +|68 |2012 |A.R. Jiang, C.M. Gao, J.H. Ding, S.P. Li, Y.T. Liu, H.X. Cao, J.Z. Wu, J.H. Tang, Y. Qian, and K. Tajima, “Abortions and Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women in Jiangsu Province of China,” //Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention//​ 13 (2012): 33-35. |1.52 (1.21-1.92) |Yes |Positive |China | 
 +|69 |2012 |Julie Lecarpentier,​ et al., “Variation in breast cancer risk associated with factors related to pregnancies according to truncating mutation location, in the French National BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations carrier cohort (GENEPSO),​” //Breast Cancer Research// 14, issue 4 (2012): R99. |(hazard ratio) 1.15 (.83-1.6) if 1 IA; 1.77 (1.19-2.63) if IA before FFTP |No/ Yes |Positive |France | 
 +|70 |2013 |Christina Marie Braüner, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland,​ and Jørn Attermann, “Induced abortion and breast cancer among parous women: A Danish cohort study” [published online ahead of print April 13, 2013], //Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica//​ 92, issue 6 (2013): 700-705. |.95 (.83-1.09) |No |Negative |Denmark | 
 +|71 |2013 |S. Jabeen, M. Haque, J. Islam, M.Z. Hossain, A. Begum, and M.A. Kashem, "​Breast Cancer and Some Epidemiological Factors: A Hospital Based Study,"​ //Journal of Dhaka Medical College// 22, no. 1 (2013): 61-66. |20.62 |No |Positive |Bangladesh | 
 +|72 |2013 |Ramchandra Kamath, Kamaleshwar S. Mahajan, Lena Ashok, T.S. Sanal, "A study on risk factors of bresat cancer among patients attending the tertiary care hospital, in Udupi district,"​ //Indian Journal of Community Medicine// 38, no. 2 (2013): 95-99. |6.38 (.99-40.81) |No |Positive |India ​|